Food Animal Production
Much of the world’s meat, dairy and egg production is characterized by large-scale, geographically-concentrated operations that rely on external inputs and inexpensive labor, and that are controlled by a small number of companies. These methods of production are dominant in high-income countries and increasingly common in lower- and middle-income countries. A growing body of evidence indicates that this industrial manner of animal production threatens rural communities, consumers and ecosystems, and compromises animal welfare. For more than 20 years, the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future has applied a public health lens to the ecological, economic, and social considerations across the spectrum of animal production methods.